• Flora Flora

    Climatic factors as a whole and the predominantly limy nature of the island´s soil condition the distribution of vegetation in the Tramuntana area and the altitude of plant communities. Their varied vegetation responds fundamentally to their climactic differences, since the higher parts are cold, windy and wet, whilst the lower parts are drier and warm [...]

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The Serra de Tramuntana mountain range is among the areas least impacted by the recent rise in human activity in Mallorca. This condition has enabled the survival of many highly endangered species elsewhere on the island. Its rugged relief and diversity of flora have yielded some rather peculiar phenomena of evolutionary radiation, ultimately bringing about a diversification of groups with numerous endemic species.

This is also owing to the double insularity of the Tramuntana, being a mountain range formed on an island, an aspect that makes for a relative abundance of endemicity. A notable example in this respect would be the cave-dwelling invertebrates, accounting for a total of 125 species in Mallorca, 94 of which are found in cavities of the Tramuntana mountain range, with 31 of these pertaining to endemic species.

Other important faunal groups inhabiting the Tramuntana range include the surface-dwelling endemic invertebrates, such as the flightless Timarcha balearica leaf beetle and the vertebrates whose best representatives rank among the most vulnerable and endangered of the Balearic fauna, such as the osprey (Pandion haliaetus ), the black vulture (Aegypius monachus) and the Mallorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis), a small, endemic amphibian now highly endangered due to the fragility of its habitats, the small temporary accumulations of water at the center of the karstic canyons of the Tramuntana range.