• The geological substratum and reliefs The geological substratum and reliefs

    The geological materials that compose the Tramuntana area cover a period spanning the end of the Palaeozoic Era (Carboniferous Period) and the lower Miocene, that is to say a period of time of between 240 and 15 million years. In general, the mountain range is made up of sedimentary rocks, predominantly Jurassic limestone (Secondary era), which give rise to [...]

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The Serra de Tramuntana mountain range is among the areas least impacted by the recent rise in human activity in Mallorca. This condition has enabled the survival of many highly endangered species elsewhere on the island. Its rugged relief and diversity of flora have yielded some rather peculiar phenomena of evolutionary radiation, ultimately bringing about a diversification of groups with numerous endemic species.

This is also owing to the double insularity of the Tramuntana, being a mountain range formed on an island, an aspect that makes for a relative abundance of endemicity. A notable example in this respect would be the cave-dwelling invertebrates, accounting for a total of 125 species in Mallorca, 94 of which are found in cavities of the Tramuntana mountain range, with 31 of these pertaining to endemic species.

Other important faunal groups inhabiting the Tramuntana range include the surface-dwelling endemic invertebrates, such as the flightless Timarcha balearica leaf beetle and the vertebrates whose best representatives rank among the most vulnerable and endangered of the Balearic fauna, such as the osprey (Pandion haliaetus ), the black vulture (Aegypius monachus) and the Mallorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis), a small, endemic amphibian now highly endangered due to the fragility of its habitats, the small temporary accumulations of water at the center of the karstic canyons of the Tramuntana range.