• Maritime heritage Maritime heritage

    The north coast of the Tramuntana area, which is extremely difficult to navigate, contains numerous examples of maritime heritage related to surveillance of the coast, sailing and the exploitation of its relatively scarce fishing resources. They include coastal towers, lighthouses, dry docks and heritage linked to smuggling. Quarries for the extraction of marès (sandstone) complete the list of coastal heritage of interest value. Coastal watchtowers The geographical isolation that Mall [...]

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BUILT LANDSCAPE

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Archaeological heritage

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As many as 750 archaeological sites have been found among the 20 municipalities comprising the Serra de Tramuntana mountain range, according to inventory records compiled by the Balearic Islands Government from 1990 to 1995. This figure may have risen following the discoveries made in recent years. Nevertheless, the limited accessibility and the scope of the area in question make it difficult to carry out an exhaustive cataloging, which would require complete, well-planned research.

Analysis of the specialized bibliography shows an abundance of archaeological research on particular sites or areas, such as the projects for Valldemossa - Deià - Sóller, and Pollença and Calvià. In municipalities such as Estellencs, Selva and Mancor de la Vall, few sites have been found with archaeological remains. When citing the points of greater interest, in chronological order, one should start with the Simó cave in Sóller, which, if the initial dating were confirmed, would pertain to an initial phase of settlement in Mallorca, with remains having been found there from the island's oldest settlement, which dates back to the late third millennium B.C. Thus it would seem that the Serra de Tramuntana mountain range was one of the island's original settlement sites. This same period would also pertain to Abric de Son Matge, a site located in Valldemossa.

The population of the following period, known as the Copper Age, is found in small hamlets with huts such as that discovered in Son Olesa (Valldemossa), and in natural caves and rock shelters such as Morts de Son Gallard, located in Deià. From the Early Bronze Age, also known as Pretalayotic or Naviform (1700-1300 B.C.), we see new housing structures called naviform, navetiform or navetes, named for the inverted navicular or boat-shaped layout of the rooms. These appear isolated in Calvià and Fartàritx (Pollença), though are also seen grouped together in bona fide villages. This is the case of those in Bòquer (Pollença), Femenia, Cals Reis (Escorca) and Son Olesa (Valldemossa). Moreover, discoveries from this period have identified ritual practices associated with sepulchral caves that could be natural, such as that of Morts de Lluc (Escorca), or carved out of the rock, such as the ensemble of caves at Sant Vicenç (Pollença).

In the third stage, we have the sites from the Talayotic culture (1000-123 B.C.), so called for the appearance of a new architectural structure known as talayot, a megalithic monument with a round or quadrangular base, either isolated or in hamlets, though not always fortified. These are so numerous that only a few need mention, such as: the hamlets of Son Ferrandell, Son Brondo, Can Fortuny, Son Quijada and Son Rul·lan, or the talayots of Sa Coma, Sa Rota d'es Pou, Es Verger and Pastoritx. Also notable are the sanctuary of Almallutx, the hamlet and sanctuary of Son Mas, the defensive walls of Puig de ses Caves d'en Galileu and Castellot de s'Alqueria, and the tiered burial mounds of Son Pacs and Puig de sa Moneda. Finally, also worth mentioning are the archaeological artifacts from the Roman Period, remains that are in fact more dispersed and rather infrequent. Such is the case of the Roman village of Santa Ponça (Calvià), and numerous archaeological sites with surface ceramics, as is the case with Es Gall de Foc (Puigpunyent) or the gravestone of Es Fornassos (Caimari, Selva).